25 maio 2012

Dazzling Aishwarya Rai Bachchan lives up to 'world's most beautiful woman' title at Cannes after cruel critics slam baby weight

She may have been criticised in her native India for not losing her baby weight fast enough, but Aishwarya Rai Bachchan looked nothing short of dazzling at the AmfAR Cinema Against Aids gala in Cannes last night.
Baby weight or not, the Bollywood actress, 38, lived up to her title of 'the worlds most beautiful woman' in a gold embroidered sari and co-ordinating tailored jacket with Mandarin collar.
Her hair was piled high on her head and adorned with a slender gold band, while her make-up was understated save the dark eyeliner around her eyes.
Aishwarya Rai Bachchan
Dazzling: Aishwarya Rai Bachchan lived up to her title of 'the world's most beautiful woman' at the AmfAR gala at Cannes last night, just a week after critics slated her for not losing her baby weight fast enough
The former Miss World, who is married to Abhishek Bachchan, the son of one of India's best-loved stars, gave birth to her first child, a daughter, in November last year.
She found international fame in the Hollywood film Bride and Prejudice, and Julia Roberts billed her as the world's most beautiful woman.

But an unfortunate recent photograph that captured her with a double chin, sparked a flurry of cruel criticism, with some suggesting that she has a 'duty' to her fans to regain her pre-pregnancy figure.
One website posted a video of the star looking less than her usual svelte self, flicking between photographs of her pre-birth, and photos now.
Aishwarya Rai Bachchan
Aishwarya Rai Bachchan
Star turn: Baby weight or not, the Bollywood actress, 38, looked every inch the Bollywood beauty in a gold embroidered sari and co-ordinating tailored jacket with Mandarin collar
Called 'Aishwarya Rai's shocking weight gain', the clip, which came accompanied by elephant sound effects, has been seen more than 500,000 times.
Dozens more videos in a similar vein have been posted, each with viewing figures in the tens or hundreds of thousands.
Comments left after the video prove that many of those watching have little sympathy for the star. 
'She is a Bollywood actress and it is her duty to look good and fit,' one said. Another added: 'She needs to learn from people like Victoria Beckham who are back to size zero weeks after their delivery.'
Letting her fans down? Former Miss World and Bollywood star Aishwarya Rai Bachchan has been lambasted by followers who suggest she should have lost her baby weight following the birth of her daughter
Letting her fans down? The former Miss World has been lambasted following the publication of an unflattering photo, with critics suggesting that she should have already lost her baby weight
Mrs Rai-Bachchan has commendably remained cool-headed about the criticism, and has been open about the fact that she is in no hurry to lose the few extra pounds she gained during her pregnancy.
'The most beautiful woman in the world': Aishwarya Rai won Miss World in 1994
'The most beautiful woman in the world': Aishwarya Rai won Miss World in 1994
She has said that she simply wants to 'enjoy motherhood'.
Indeed, if last night's appearance at Cannes is anything to go by, she has little to worry about.
Nor is she short of support in her goal to prioritise her new daughter.
Though there is certainly more critique than praise, many have come out in defence of the star, saying that she, like any new mother, should be focusing on her infant, not her diet.
One wrote: 'She is a real women looking after a baby. We should be concern [sic] for her health and happiness especially if she is nursing the baby.'
Another said. 'Kudos to you Aish for keeping it real and letting your baby have all the bonding and attention she needs with you. Enjoy your life.'
Media commentators in India have said that expectations placed on the country's most famous stars are impossibly high.
Cinema professor Shohini Ghosh told the New York Daily News: 'There is a glorification of motherhood in India and Indian cinema.
'But people are confused because they don't know whether to glorify Aishwarya in her new motherhood or lament that she is not looking like a runway model.'
Showbusiness columnist Shobhaa Dé added: 'She is held up as the ideal of beauty and so there is an expectation on her to look perfect at all times.'


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The regional differences in Brazil.

I was born in Porto Alegrethe capital of Rio Grande do Sul Socomenço to southern Brazil.
My father was born in Porto Alegre and also my mother in Santana do Livramento (originally St. Anne of Deliveranceis a municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is located at latitude 30 º53'27 "south and longitude 55 º 31'58west, with an altitude of 208 metersa distance of 498 km from the capital Porto Alegre, 483 kmfrom Montevideo (capital of Uruguay634 km from Buenos Aires (Argentina), 2434 km from Brasilia (capital Federal) and 380 kmfrom the port of Rio Grande. Part of my mother, my grandmother isUruguayUruguay and the great-grandmother great-grandfatherGermanSpanish great-grandfatherFrom my father, grandfather and great-grandmother Syrian German.

South Region, Brazil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
South Region
Região Sul
—  Region  —
Location of South Region in Brazil
Country Brazil
StatesParanáRio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina
 • Region576,409.6 km2(222,553.0 sq mi)
Area rank5th
Population (2010 census)
 • Region27,384,815
 • Rank3rd
 • Density48/km2 (120/sq mi)
 • Density rank2nd
 • Urban82%
 • Year2008[1]
 • TotalR$502,9 billion (2nd)
 • Per capitaR$ 18,257 (2nd)
 • Year2005–2007
 • Category0.831 – high (1st)
 • Life expectancy77.2 years (1st)
 • Infant mortality7.7% (5th)
 • Literacy97.3% (1st)
Time zoneBRT (UTC-03)
 • Summer (DST)BRST (UTC-02)
The South Region of Brazil (PortugueseRegião Sul do Brasil) is one of the five regions of Brazil. It includes the states of ParanáSanta Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,409.6 km ², being the smallest portion of the country, occupying only about 5% of the territory of Brazil. Its whole area is smaller than that of the state ofMinas Gerais, in the Southeast Brazil, for example. It is, however, the Brazilian region with better quality of life, with the highest Human Development Index (HDI), with a largest literate population, with the best public education and health, and the region with the lowest infant mortality rate, with the lowest percentage of population below thepoverty line (about only 0,8%) and with the lowest crime rates;
It is a great touristeconomic and cultural pole. It borders UruguayArgentina, andParaguay as well as the Center-West Region, the Southeast Region and the Atlantic Ocean.


[edit]Pre-Columbian History

Ruins of São Miguel das Missões, where the Jesuits used to live with the local Indians.
By the time the first European explorers arrived, all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi-nomadic Indian tribes, who subsisted on a combination of hunting, fishing, gathering, and agriculture.

[edit]Portuguese colonization

European colonization in Southern Brazil started with the arrival of Portuguese and SpanishJesuits. They lived among the Indians and made them become CatholicsColonists from São Paulo (Bandeirantes) arrived in the same period.[2] For decades, the Portuguese and Spanish crowns disputed over this region. Due to this conflict, the King of Portugalencouraged the immigration of settlers from the Azores Islands to Southern Brazil. Between 1748 and 1756, six thousand Azoreans arrived. They composed over half of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina by the late 18th century.[3]

[edit]German settlement

Areas of Germansettlement in Southern Brazil (pink), in 1905.
Soon after Brazil's independence from Portugal (1822), the first Germans came to Brazil. Settlers from Germany were brought to work as small farmers, because there were many land holdings without workers. To attract the immigrants, the Brazilian government had promised large tracts of land, where they could settle with their families and colonize the region. The firstimmigrants arrived in 1824, settling in the city of São Leopoldo. In the next five decades, another 28 thousand Germans were brought to Rio Grande do Sul to work as small farmers in the countryside.[4] By 1914, it is estimated that 50 thousand Germans had settled in this state.
In Santa Catarina, most German immigrants were not brought by the Brazilian government, but by private groups, such as the Hamburg Colonization Society, which were promoting the immigration of Europeans to the Americas. They created rural communities or colonies to these immigrants. Many of these German colonies had a great development and became large cities, such as Blumenau and Joinville, the largest city in Santa Catarina.
Considerable numbers of immigrants from Germany arrived at Paraná during the 1870s, most of them coming from Santa Catarina or Volga Germans from Russia.[5]

[edit]War of Tatters

The War of Tatters was a Republican uprising that began in Southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina) in 1835. The rebels, led by generals Bento Gonçalves da Silva and Antônio de Souza Netto with the support of the Italian warrior Giuseppe Garibaldi, surrendered to imperial forces in 1845. This conflict occurred because in Rio Grande do Sul, the state's main product, the charque(bovine dried and salted meat), suffered the hard competition of charque from Uruguay and Argentina, which had free access to the Brazilian market while the gauchos had to pay high taxes inside Brazil. The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels in 1839. With his help the revolution spread through Santa Catarina, in the northern border of Rio Grande do Sul. After many conflicts, in 1845 the peace negotiations finished with the war.

[edit]Italian settlement

President Lula greeting the local Brazilian women of Italiandescent during the Festa da Uvaparty.
Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875. They were mostly peasants from the Veneto, but also from Trentino and LombardiaNorthern Italy. They were attracted to Southern Brazil to get their own lands and populate the South. Most of the immigrants worked as small farmers, mainly cultivating grapes in the Serra Gaúcha. Italian immigration to the region lasted until 1914, with a total of 100 thousand Italians settling in Rio Grande do Sul in this period and many others in Santa Catarina and Paraná.[6]
In 1898, there were 300 thousand people of Italian origin in Rio Grande do Sul, 50 thousand in Santa Catarina and 30 thousand in Paraná. Nowadays, their Southern Brazilian descendants are 9.7 million, composing 35.9% of Southern Brazil's population.[7][8]


The region received large numbers of European immigrants during the 19th century, who have had a large influence on its demography and culture. The main ethnic origins of Southern Brazil are PortugueseItalian, and German.[9]

View of Downtown Florianópolis.
CityStatePopulation (2007)
Curitiba[10] Paraná1,828,092
Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul1,441,554
Londrina[10] Paraná505,184
Joinville Santa Catarina487,003
Caxias do Sul Rio Grande do Sul419,852
Florianópolis Santa Catarina416,564
Pelotas Rio Grande do Sul350,358
Canoas Rio Grande do Sul333,322
Maringá Paraná324,397
Foz do Iguaçu Paraná309,113
Ponta Grossa Paraná304,973

[edit]Racial composition


Vehicles: 10,014,081 (March/2007); Telephones: 6,919,000 (April/2007); Cities: 1,188 (2007).


Southern Brazil has subtropical or temperate climate. The annual average temperatures vary between 12°C (53.6°F) and 22°C (71.6°F). It can snow in the mountain ranges.


The region is highly urbanized (82%) and many cities are famous for their urban planning, like Curitiba and Maringá. It has a relatively high standard of living, with the highest Human Development Index of Brazil, 0.859 (2007), and the second highest per capita income of the country, $13.396, behind only the Southeast Region. The region also has a 94% literacy rate.


The Curitiba Botanical Garden.
Portuguese, the official language of Brazil, is spoken by the entire population. In the south countryside, dialects of German or Italian origins are also spoken. The predominant dialects are the Hunsrückisch and the Venetian (or Talian). In Rio Grande do Sul and Curitiba there are some Yiddish speakers. In the northern region of Paraná there are Japanese speakers. There are Polish language and Ukrainian language speakers in Paraná as well,.[12][13]

[edit]Palaeontological tourism

Girl with Karamuru and apetrified tree of paleorrota.
The Rio Grande do Sul has a great potential for palaeontological tourism, with many paleontological sites and museums in Paleorrota. There is a large area in the center of the state that belongs to the Triassic. Here lived Rhynchosaurthecodontsexaeretodons,StaurikosaurusGuaibasaurusSaturnalia tupiniquimSacisaurusUnaysaurus and many others.

[edit]See also

Downtown Porto Alegre.

North Region, Brazil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
North Region
Região Norte
—  Region  —
Location of North Region in Brazil
Country Brazil
 • Region3,853,327.2 km2(1,487,777.9 sq mi)
Area rank1st
Population (2005 census)
 • Region14,726,059
 • Estimate (2007)15,022,060
 • Rank4th
 • Density3.8/km2 (9.9/sq mi)
 • Density rank5th
 • Urban75.6%
 • Year2005/2006 estimate
 • TotalR$120 billion (5th)
 • Per capitaR$7,247 (4th)
 • Year2005–2006
 • Category0.764 – medium (4th)
 • Life expectancy71 years (4th)
 • Infant mortality25.8% (4th)
 • Literacy88.7% (4th)
Time zoneBRT (UTC-04)
 • Summer (DST)BRST (UTC-03)
The North Region of Brazil (PortugueseRegião Norte do Brasil) is the largest Region of Brazil, corresponding to 45.27% of the national territory. It is the least inhabited of the country, and contributes with a minor percentage in the national GDP and population. It is composed by the states of AcreAmapáAmazonasParáRondôniaRoraima andTocantins.
Its demographic density is the lowest in Brazil considering all the regions of the country, with only 3.8 inhabitants per km2. Most of the population is centered in urban areas.
Belém International Airport and Manaus International Airport connects North region with many Brazilian cities and also operates some international flights.
The North is home to the Federal University of Amazonas and Federal University of Pará.


Northern Vegetation. Green is Amazon Rainforest; Orange is Cerrado; Blue is coastal vegetation; Yellow is Hiliéan Fields.

Annual Precipitation.
The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract oftropical rainforest in the world.
Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in theAmericas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.[1] As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than 1/3 of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest.[2]
The region is home to about 2.5 million insectspecies, tens of thousands of plants, and some 2000 birds and mammals species. To date, at least 40,000 plant species, 3,000 fish, 1,294 birds, 427 mammals, 428 amphibians, and 378 reptiles have been scientifically classified in the region.[3] Scientists have described between 96,660 and 128,843 invertebrate species in Brazil alone.[4]
The diversity of plant species is the highest on earth with some experts estimating that one square kilometre may contain over 75,000 types of trees and 150,000 species of higher plants. One square kilometre of Amazon rainforest can contain about 90,790 tonnes of living plants.[5] This constitutes the largest collection of living plants and animal species in the world. One in five of all the birds in the world live in the rainforests of the Amazon. To date, an estimated 438,000 species of plants of economic and social interest have been registered in the region with many more remaining to be discovered or catalogued.[6]


Belém is the 2nd most populous city of the North region.
CityPopulation (2007)
Porto Velho426,558
Rio Branco288,614

[edit]Ethnic groups

The population of northern Brazil is largely made up of Caboclos, descendants of Indians and Portuguese. The north of Brazil has received and continues to receive large migration of people from South and Southeast of the country. In the 20th century, the North also received great migration from the Northeast, who were working in the rubber plantations of Amazonas and Acre.
Skin color/Race (2006)
White (European, Caucasian)23.9%
Black (African)6.2%
Brown (Multiracial)69.2%
Yellow (Asian)0.49%
Red (Amerindian)0.7%


The economy of the North Region is essentially based on the vegetal plantation and extraction, such as latexaçaíwoods and nuts; and mineral extraction of gold, precious stones, cassiterite and tin (metal); as well as mining exploitation, mainly iron, at Carajás Mountain Range (in the State of Pará) and manganese, at Navio Mountain Range (in the State of Amapá).


Vehicles: 1,746,501 (March/2007); Telephones: 1,805,000 (April/2007); Cities: 449 (2007).


Portuguese language is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

Northeast Region, Brazil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Northeast Region
Região Nordeste
—  Region  —
Location of Northeast Region in Brazil
Country Brazil
Largest citiesSalvador (by city proper)
Recife (by metro pop.)
 • Region1,558,196 km2(601,623 sq mi)
Area rank3rd
Population (2005 census)
 • Region51,065,275
 • Estimate (2009)53,591,197
 • Rank2nd
 • Density33/km2 (85/sq mi)
 • Density rank3rd
 • Urban71.5%
 • Year2007 estimate
 • TotalR$347,797,041,000 (3rd)
 • Per capitaR$6,749 (5th)
 • Year2005/2006
 • Category0.720 – medium (5th)
 • Life expectancy69 years (5th)
 • Infant mortality36.9% (5th)
 • Literacy79.3% (5th)
Time zoneBRT (UTC-03)
 • Summer (DST)BRST (UTC-02)
The Northeast Region of Brazil (PortugueseRegião Nordeste do Brasil) is composed of the following states: MaranhãoPiauíCearáRio Grande do NorteParaíba,PernambucoAlagoasSergipe and Bahia, and it represents 18.26% of the Brazilian territory.
The Northeast Region has a population of 53.6 million people, which represents 28% of the total number in the whole country. Most of the population lives in urban areas and about 15 million people live in the sertão. It is famous in Brazil for its hot weather, beautiful beaches, rich culture (unique folklore, music, cuisine, literature), Carnival and St. John's festivities, the sertão and being the birthplace of the country.
The biggest cities are SalvadorFortaleza and Recife, which are the regional metropolitan areas of the Northeast, all with a population above a million inhabitants and metropolitan areas above 3.5 million.
Salvador International AirportRecife International Airport and Fortaleza International Airport connects the Northeast region with major Brazilian cities, operates international flights to the U.S. and Europe and some international chartered flights. The Nordeste, according to Infraero, has the second largest number of passengers (roughly 20%) in Brazil.
The Northeast is home to several universities, museums, theaters, churches, and historical landmarks of colonial Brazil.

Geography and climate

Geographically, the Northeast consists chiefly of an eroded continental craton with many low hills and small ranges. The highest peaks are around 1,850 metres (6,070 ft) in Bahia, while further north there are no peaks above 1,123 metres (3,684 ft). On its northern and western side, the plateaus fall steadily to the coast and into the basin of the Tocantins River in Maranhão, but on the eastern side it falls off quite sharply to the coast except in the valley of the São Francisco river. The steep slopes and long cliffs of the eastern coastline are known as "The Great Escarpment".
The escarpment serves an extremely important climatic function. Because for most of the year the Nordeste is out of reach of theIntertropical Convergence Zone, the easterly trade winds blow across the region, giving abundant rainfall to the coast but producing clear, dry conditions inland where the escarpment blocks moisture flow. This gives rise to four distinct regions, the zona da mata on the coast, the agreste on the escarpment, sertão beyond and the Mid north.

[edit]nordeste da mata(Atlantic Rainforest zone)

On the humid eastern littoral, before European settlement was a long thin area of tropical rainforest with species completely different from those found in the much larger Amazon rainforest, known as the Mata Atlantica. Because of the fact that the climate was extremely suitable for the cultivation of sugar cane, however, very little of the forest remains today. For many years, sugar cane cultivation in this region was the mainstay of Brazil's economy, being superseded only when coffee production developed in the late nineteenth century. The sugar cane is cultivated on large estates and the owners of these had and maintain tremendous political influence.


Since the escarpment does not generate any further rainfall on its slopes from the lifting of the trade winds, annual rainfall decreases steadily inland. After a relatively short distance, there is no longer enough rainfall to support tropical rainforest, especially since the rainfall is extremely erratic from year to year. This transitional zone is known as the agreste and because it is located on the steep escarpment, was not generally used whilst flatter land was abundant. Today, with irrigation water available, however, the agreste, as its name suggest, is a major farming region despite containing no major city, contains well developed medium large cities such asCaruaruCampina Grande and Arapiraca.

[edit]Sertão Nordestino (North-Eastern Backlands)

People who live in these arid areas generally do not have enough water for their subsistence and need to walk long distances to obtain it. Many times these people, who are generally poor, give up and go to live in the big cities like São PauloRecifeSalvador or Rio de Janeiro. A well known case is that of the former Brazilian president, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who lived in Caetés, and moved early in childhood with the family to Santos, where he worked in the streets in his teens. Brazilian poet João Cabral de Melo Neto, who was born in Recife, wrote poems such as Morte e Vida SeverinaCemitério Pernambucano, and A Educação Pela Pedra, that illustrate well the bleak living conditions of these arid backlands.

[edit]Meio Norte Nordestino (Northeast Mid North)

It is a transition area between the high rainfalls region of amazonas and the semi arid region of sertão (hot and drought). Covers the states of Maranhão and half of Piaui.


The Northeast was primarily inhabited by indigenous peoples, mostly speaking languages of the Tupi–Guarani family, who, before the colonial era, helped Europeans with the extraction of brazilwood from the coastal rainforest (or mata atlântica) in exchange for spices. But as colonization and commercial interest intensified in the region the number of Indians became drastically reduced due to the constant battles with the owners of the large sugar mills. Conflicts arose because the settlers had displaced the native inhabitants and then tried to enslave them as labor in the fields. The Portuguese colonials then considered the idea of importing black African slaves to use as manual labor. To this day culture in Northeast Brazil remains fully permeated by this African influence.
The Northeast was the first area of discovery in Brazil, when roughly 1,500 Portuguese arrived on April 22, 1500, under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral at Porto Seguro, in the state of Bahia.

A view of Olinda
The coast of the Northeast was the stage for the first economic activity of the country, namely the extraction and export of pau Brasil, or brazilwood. Brazilwood was highly valued in Europe where it was used to make violin bows (especially the Pau de Pernambuco variety) and for the red dye it produced. Countries like France, who disagreed with the Treaty of Tordesillas, (a papal bull decreed by the Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI in 1493 which sought to divide the South American continent between the Spanish and the Portuguese), launched constant attacks against the coast with the objective of stealing the wood.
French colonists not only tried to settle in present-day Rio de Janeiro, from 1555 to 1567 (the so-called France Antarctique episode), but also in present-day São Luís, from 1612 to 1614 (the so-called France Equinoxiale). The Dutch, also opposed to the Treaty of Tordesillas, plundered the Northeast coast, sacked Bahia in 1604, and even temporarily captured Salvador. From 1630 to 1654 the Dutch set up more permanently in the Northeast and controlled a long stretch of coast that was most accessible to Europe without, however, penetrating the interior. But the colonists of theDutch West India Company in Brazil were in a constant siege despite the presence in Recife of the great John Maurice of Nassau as governor.

The Historic centre of Salvador, Bahia
Slave resistance began during the colonial era, in the seventeenth century, and eventually led to the formation of quilombos, or settlements of runaway and free-born African slaves. TheQuilombo dos Palmares, the largest and most well-known of these settlements, was founded around 1600 in the Serra da Barriga hills, in the present state of Alagoas. Palmares, at the height of its power, was an independent, self-sustaining republic, hosting a population of over 30,000 free African men, women and children. There were over 200 buildings in the community, a church, four smithies, and a council house. Although Palmares managed to defend itself from the Dutch military and the Portuguese colonials for several decades, it was finally taken and destroyed and its leader Zumbi dos Palmares was captured and beheaded. His head was then displayed in a public plaza in Recife.
Besides being Brazil’s main sea port, Brazil's center of the African slave trade, a center of the sugar industry, and the seat of the first Catholic bishop of Brazil (in 1552) the city of Salvador was also the first general seat of government in Brazil as it is strategically located in the center of the eastern coast of the country. The government in Salvador sought to centralize power in an effort to support the various captaincies, geographical subdivisions that preceded the present states of Brazil, which at this time were in a state of crisis. Salvador remained the colonial capital until 1763 when it was succeeded by Rio de Janeiro, the new economic power center of that era.


Recife is the third largest city of the region.

Natal, is considered by IPEA (Institute of Applied Economic Research of Brazil), to be the safest state capital city in the country.

Festa Junina celebration in Mossoró.

Local health care training by theOlinda local administration

Arruda Stadium in Recife.

Rendeira woman from Ceará

The Maracatu, a cultural aspect resulted from the mix between Amerindians, Portuguese and Africans in Northeast Brazil.
CityPopulation (2009)
São Luís997,098
João Pessoa702,235
Feira de Santana591,707

[edit]Ethnic groups

Just as the rest of Brazil,are most of the inhabitants of the Northeast are of Native American,African and European ancetry. In the south of the Northeast,The states of Bahia,Alagoas,Sergippe and Pernambuco,most people are of African ancestry( as Blacks and Mulattoes) In Ceará,Piauí,Rio grande de Northe,and Paraíba the amerindian component is more preserved but still with high African and European ancestry.Most people there are in fact triracials with varying percents of African,Amerindian and European ancestry.In Maranhão most people are of African ancestry as Blakcs and Mulattoes. In the whole of the Northeast of Brazil, there is a significant minority of whites of mostly Portegese ancestry who account for 28 percent of the total population.

[edit]The ethnic composition of the Northeast of Brazil compared to other regions

The composition of the Northeast of Brazil compared to other regions of Brazil according to autosomal genetic studies focused on the Brazilian population (which has been found to be a complex melting pot of European, African and Native Americans components):
A recent autosomal DNA study (2011), with nearly 1000 samples from all over the country ("whites", "pardos" and "blacks"), found out a major European contribution, followed by a high African contribution and an important Native American component.[1] The study showed that Brazilians from different regions are more homogenous than previously thought by some based on the census alone. "Brazilian homogeneity is, therefore, a lot greater between Brazilian regions than within Brazilian regions".[2]
Region[1]EuropeanAfricanNative American
Northern Brazil68.80%10.50%18.50%
Northeast of Brazil60.10%29.30%8.90%
Southeast Brazil74.20%17.30%7.30%
Southern Brazil79.50%10.30%9.40%
According to an autosomal DNA study from 2010, "a new portrayal of each ethnicity contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, obtained with samples from the five regions of the country, has indicated that, on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population. The variation between the regions is small, with the possible exception of the South, where the European contribution reaches nearly 90%. The results, published by the scientific magazine 'American Journal of Human Biology' by a team of the Catholic University of Brasília, show that, in Brazil, physical indicators such as skin colour, colour of the eyes and colour of the hair have little to do with the genetic ancestry of each person, which has been shown in previous studies"(regardless of census classification)".[3]Ancestry informative SNPs can be useful to estimate individual and population biogeographical ancestry. Brazilian population is characterized by a genetic background of three parental populations (European, African, and Brazilian Native Amerindians) with a wide degree and diverse patterns of admixture. In this work we analyzed the information content of 28 ancestry-informative SNPs into multiplexed panels using three parental population sources (African, Amerindian, and European) to infer the genetic admixture in an urban sample of the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. The SNPs assigned apart the parental populations from each other and thus can be applied for ancestry estimation in a three hybrid admixed population. Data was used to infer genetic ancestry in Brazilians with an admixture model. Pairwise estimates of F(st) among the five Brazilian geopolitical regions suggested little genetic differentiation only between the South and the remaining regions. Estimates of ancestry results are consistent with the heterogeneous genetic profile of Brazilian population, with a major contribution of European ancestry (0.771) followed by African (0.143) and Amerindian contributions (0.085). The described multiplexed SNP panels can be useful tool for bioanthropological studies but it can be mainly valuable to control for spurious results in genetic association studies in admixed populations."[4]
Region[5]EuropeanAfricanNative American
Northern Brazil71.10%18.20%10.70%
Northeast of Brazil77.40%13.60%8.90%
Central-West Brazil65.90%18.70%11.80%
Southeast Region, Brazil79.90%14.10%6.10%
Southern Brazil87.70%7.70%5.20%
An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found a similar profile "all the Brazilian samples (regions) lie more closely to the European group than to the African populations or to the Mestizos from Mexico".[6]
Region[7]EuropeanAfricanNative American
Northern Brazil60.6%21.3%18.1%
Northeast of Brazil66.7%23.3%10.0%
Central-West Brazil66.3%21.7%12.0%
Southeast Region, Brazil60.7%32.0%7.3%
Southern Brazil81.5%9.3%9.2%
According to another autosomal DNA study from 2008, by the University of Brasília (UnB), European ancestry dominates in the whole of Brazil (in all regions), accounting for 65.90% of heritage of the population, followed by the African contribution (24.80%) and the Native American (9.3%), the European ancestry being the dominant ancestry in all regions including the Northeast of Brazil.[8]
A study from 1965, Methods of Analysis of a Hybrid Population (Human Biology, vol 37, number 1), led by the geneticists D. F. Roberts e R. W. Hiorns, found out the average the Northeastern Brazilian to be predominantly European in ancestry (65%), with minor but important African and Native American contributions (25% and 9%).[9]
-=Northeast Region Sub-Divisions=-
StateSymbolArea km2MunicipalitiesMesoregionsMicroregionsPopulation2009 IBGEHDI2005GDP(R$x1000) 2007 IBGEGDP per capita2007 (R$)
Rio Grande do NorteRN52,796,7911674193,137,5410.73822,925,5637.607


Mossoró city in Rio Grande do Norte is one of the largest onshore petroleumproducers in Brazil.
Its economy is mainly based on the production of sugarcocoa and cotton; as well as the extensive cattle breeding. Some time ago, at São Francisco River Valley (between States ofBahia and Pernambuco), fruits for export started being produced, too. At the seaside and the continental platform of the Region, the main activity is the exploitation of oil, which is later processed in the State of Bahia. Major industries (clothing, food, small machinery) are in the main metropolitan areas of the northeast.

Ceará is the 4th textile industrial center of Brazil.[10] In the pic, Fortaleza, the second largest metropolitan region of the Northeast
Official reclamation activities have spurred the construction of numerous dams and hydroelectricprojects, especially on the São Francisco River. In the 1960s a successful extensive regional economic development program to address social unrest and countereffect its harsh and picturesque history, peopled by leather-garbed cowboys, bandits (cangaceiros), and religious fanatics. Development of tourism is a concerted, ongoing effort.[11] The São Francisco River is responsible for the regional production of energy and it also bathes the states of BahiaSergipeAlagoas and Pernambuco. The Northeast is rich in natural beauties with its beaches of clear, warm water. Beyond tourism, the Northeast also develops its industrial sector. Every day, important investors from many countries come to this region to search for new opportunities. The governments try to motivate the inflow of new investment money, based on the needs of its states.[12]

Camaçari, in Bahia, has the largest integrated industrial complex in the southern hemisphere with plants of Brazilian multinational companies such asBraskem.[13]

[edit]Northeast livestock

According with IBGE 2007, The Nordeste has the 3rd largest livestock portfolio in Brazil, with approximately 16% of the total livestock output.
AnimalBahiaPernambucoCearáMaranhãoRio G do NorteSergipeParaibaAlagoasPiauiNortheast TotalBRRanking & %
Goats318783915950699768803790544015101797263645767549137139286337221st - 91.36%
Sheep309615512562701998165226216514224147102409634201273143721992862581st - 57.19%
Cattle1138572222198922424290660943810102381073692113932211121251736520287112404th - 14.38%
Milkx1000lit9657996620784164533357442140442516241703962427407640933352864th - 12.77%
Pigs19046994959571132673148535118259897524143824144652115935567470132nd - 18.77%
Chickens+family291107003191681824063274114478374817525623007784129255714782100170841317310223rd - 11.69%
Chickenseggs ~75216142518109464147712872922577274802895516721466432 ~3rd - 15.73%
Quails318585605371828132090351741192351486561222973060014002012nd - 18.46%
Quails eggs~378893908263328381231536104437918257 ~2nd - 13.94%
Horses6211221259761413701743204293368503497615696214956114304082nd - 25.53%
Donkeys3089041009442010791185775795511445495281070420387610630121st - 91.39%
Mules322241548129036710692721277179482367821485377886875231st - 51.19%
Buffalos173031923916317750387538073017475701199783rd - 10.60%
Rabbits3149123831953---405------692---369243rd - 12.71%
Honeytonnes220011773137537611762081703483115982nd - 33.38%
~ means dozens of thousands
As demonstrated on the above table, the Northeast region is a larger producer of goats, sheep, donkeys, mules, horses and has a reasonable production in pigs, honey, cattle and eggs. That is due mainly to the fact that a large portion of the area is located inPoligono das Secas, which means drought poligonal area or knows popularly as sertão and/or agreste. Those areas comprise roughly 66% ( or 81% if discounted the Maranhão state )of all northeast and its characterized to have semi dessertic weather/characteristics such as: hot and dry temperatures, drought, lack and scant rainfall, eroded soil and high evapotranspiration. Even so, those farmers (in many cases subsistence farmers) are increasing their output by turning to more resistant species like as goats and sheep (very appreciated in the local culinary), and more workable animals as horses, donkeys and mules to replace and help them to do themachinery tasks, if they do have none.


Portuguese language is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

[edit]Educational institutions

[edit]Tourism and recreation

Tourism has grown significantly in the Region in the last decades, showing the high potential of each State.
Besides the capitals, most coastal cities of the Northeast Region have many natural beauties, such as the Abrolhos Marine National ParkItacaréComandatuba IslandCosta do SauípeCanasvieiras and Porto Seguro, in the State of Bahia; the Marine National Park ofFernando de NoronhaPorto de Galinhas beach in the State of Pernambuco; tropical paradises, such as Canoa Quebrada and Jericoacoara, on the coast of Ceará, as well as the places to practice free flight, as Quixadá and Sobral; and Lençóis Maranhenses, embellishing the coast of Maranhão State, among many others. In the interior area, National Parks of Serra da Capivara and Sete Cidades, both in the State of PiauíJoão Pessoa, in the State of ParaíbaChapada Diamantina, in the State of Bahia; and many other attractions.
The economy is based on tourism (in coastal or historical cities) or agriculture. The tourist industry is based largely on the beaches, which attract thousands of tourists per year, not only from other regions of Brazil but also many from Europe (especially ItalyPortugal,GermanyFranceUnited Kingdom and Spain), the United States, and Australia.

[edit]Urban areas and rural areas

Metro station of Afogados inRecife
Nordeste's major cities are almost all on the Atlantic coast. Some exceptions can be seen, however, like PetrolinaPernambuco, which lies immediately north of the São Francisco River (one of the few rivers that crosses the sertão and does not dry in the arid periods of time which can be quite long). Another example is the city of Teresina in the state of Piauí, a city notorious for its sweltering heat.
Good rural areas are scarce and generally they are all near the coast, or in the west of Maranhão, and are mainly used for exportation products. In the semi-arid areas of the Northeast Region, rural areas do exist, but rain is scarce in the region; rural areas in the interior are generally based on subsistence agriculture. Fazendas (large farms) are common in the interior, where cattle-rasing and the cultivation of tropical fruit is often practiced. Also, in the areas where water is scarce local politicians often use the promise of irrigation projects as a bargaining chip to win elections.


Cordel literature is a literary genre very popular in the Northeast of Brazil, according to the poetCarlos Drummond de Andrade it is one of the purest manifestations of the inventive spirit of Brazilians ".[15]
Nordeste has a rich culture, with its unique constructions in the old centers of SalvadorRecife andOlinda, dance (frevo and maracatu), music (axé and forró) and unique cuisine. Dishes particular to the region include carne de solfarofaacarajévatapápaçocacanjicapamonhaquibebebolo de fubá cozidosururu de capote and many others. Salvador was the first Brazilian capital.
The festival of São João (Saint John), one of the festas juninas, is especially popular in the Northeast, particularly in Caruaru in the state of Pernambuco and Campina Grande in the state ofParaíba. The festival takes place once a year in June. As the Northeast is mostly arid or semi-arid the Nordestinos give thanks to Saint John for the rainfall that typical falls this time of year, which greatly helps the farmers with their crops. And because this time of year also coincides with the corn harvest many regional dishes containing corn, such as canjica, pamonha, and milho verde, have become part of the cultural tradition.
The Bumba-Meu-Boi festival is also popular, especially in the state of Maranhão. During the Bumba-Meu-Bói festival in the city of São Luis do Maranhão and its environs there are many different groups, with elaborate costumes and different styles of music, which are called sotaquessotaque de orquestra, as the names implies, uses an orchestra of saxophones, clarinets, flutes, banjos, drums, etc.; sotaque de zabumba employs primarily very large drums; andsotaque de matraca, a percussion instrument made of two pieces of wood that you carry in your hands and hit against each other. Some matracas are very large and are carried around the neck.
Many major cities in the Northeast also hold an off-season carnaval (or "micareta"), such as the Carnatal in Natal or the Fortal inFortaleza. Since its inception in 1991, Carnatal has become the largest off-season carnaval in Brazil. The event takes place once a year, in December, and draws roughly one million participants. The Fortal takes place once every year as well but in the month of July. Held in a stadium called Cidade Fortal, the Fortal is considered the largest indoor off-season carnaval in Brazil.


[edit]International airports

Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport is located in an area of more than 6 million square meters between sand dunes and native vegetation. The road route to the airport has already become one of the city’s main scenic attractions. The airport’s use has been growing at an average of 14% a year and now is responsible for more than 30% of passenger movement in Brazil’s Northeast. Nearly 35 thousand people circulate daily through the passenger terminal. The airport generates more than 16 thousand direct and indirect jobs, to serve a daily average of over 10 thousand passengers, 250 takeoffs and landings of 100 domestic and 16 international flights.
In addition to domestic and regional services, the airport has non-stop flights to Lisbon,MadridFrankfurtMontevideoSantiagoBuenos AiresAsunción and Miami. Its IATA airport code is SSA and it is the sixth busiest airport in the country, the first in northeastern Brazil, behind Congonhas InternationalGuarulhos InternationalJuscelino Kubitschek InternationalSantos Dumont Regional and Galeão International.
Guararapes International Airport. The new Recife/Guararapes – Gilberto Freyre International Airport has been open since July 2004 and has 52 thousand square meters of area. The largest airport in the North and Northeast regions, Guararapes had its capacity expanded from 1.5 million to 5 million passengers a year. There are currently 64 check-in counters, versus the former terminal’s 24. The shopping and leisure area was also totally remodeled, within the “Aeroshopping” concept, which transforms an airport into a center for business, comfort and high-quality products and services. The commercial spaces will be occupied in steps and the final total will be 142 shops. Since 2000, Recife has had the longest runway in the Northeast, at 3,305 meters. Its extension permits operations with jumbo jets, such as the Boeing 747-400, which can carry 290 passengers and 62 tons of cargo, with endurance to fly nonstop to anywhere in South and Central AmericaAfrica and parts of Europe, theUnited States and Canada. Current domestic destinations include most major cities inBrazil, and there are also international flights to ParisFranceLisbonPortugal and Buenos AiresArgentina.
The Pinto Martins International Airport is situated in Fortaleza. The passenger terminal is air conditioned and has four levels. The basement level has parking for 1,000 cars as well as automatic teller machines and a stop for regular city buses.
The ground level has 31 check-in counters, airline offices, car rental agencies, special tourist information, a juvenile court bureau to facilitate travel of minors, a National Civil Aviation Agency (ANAC) office, information counter, passenger arrival area and access to two taxi stops.
The second level contains shops, a food court and domestic and international boarding lounges. The top floor has a beer garden and panoramic deck overlooking the maneuvering apron with a view of the Fortaleza skyline. The apron is 152,857 square meters and can accommodate 14 aircraft at once in pre-established positions (“boxes”).
The scheduled airlines operating out of Fortaleza are Cabo Verde Airlines (code-sharing with TAP), TAM, Varig, TAP, Delta Air Lines, Alitalia, Livingston and TUI Airlines. The airport also frequently receives domestic and international flights, some of them charters. The passenger terminal, opened in 1998, was designed to have a useful life of 50 years. The former terminal, called the General Aviation Terminal, is now used for general aviation and the fire brigade. The control tower is located alongside.
Construction of a cargo terminal is the next big step planned by Infraero. The new terminal will have roughly eight thousand square meters, boosting the cargo storage and handling capacity fourfold. Plans then call for the new terminal to be integrated with highway and railroad links.


The Northeast of Brazil is home to some of the most notable Brazilians, such as:
  • José Ermírio de Moraes, entrepreneur, founder of the Votorantim Group, the Votorantim Group is one of the largest industrial conglomerates in Latin America, operating in various sectors such as finance, energy, siderurgy, steel, pulp and paper among others;
  • Ruy Barbosa, one of the most important Brazilian intellectuals;
  • Aurélio Buarque de Holanda, author of the most widely Portuguese Dictionary adopted and cited in Brazil; since its publication, it was so often referred to, that its very name became incorporated as an Idiom into the Language, as a source of reliability of information regarding concepts in dispute;
  • Maurício Peixoto, brilliant mathematician, he pioneered the studies on structural stability, and he is the author of the Peixoto's theorem;
  • Luís da Câmara Cascudo, the most important folklorist of the country;
  • Paulo Freire, educator and an influential theorist of Critical Pedagogy;
  • Carlos Paz de Araújo, Brazilian scientist and inventor, he holds nearly 600 patents in the area of nanotechnology;
  • Nelson Rodrigues, one of the greatest Brazilian playwrighters, revered to this day as the founder of Brazil's Modern Theater, he was a revolutionary creator, with a penchant for the deep Psychological Profile of Characters. One of his most controversial works was "Vestido de Noiva" (1943), which introduced a totally different concept in Narrative Style, both timeless and simultaneous, presenting the action in its three planes (Hallucination-Dream, Reality and Memory) at the same time, this way blewing the old chronologically structure. His brought an innovation in Theater yet to be rivalled, much copied worldwide, both in Cinema and in Theaters - but never properly credited. He was born in Recife, PE;
  • Glauber Rocha, one of the most important Movie Directors in the Country, born in Bahia, which creativeness and bold, imaginative solutions influenced many world directors afterwards;
  • Clóvis Beviláqua, considered to be one of the most important Brazilian Jurists, author of the Brazilian Civil Code of 1916;
  • Mário Schenberg, physicist;
  • Fernando de Mendonça, electronic engineer, founder of Brazil's National Institute for Space Research;
  • Jorge Amado, for over 50 years, the most famous Brazilian Writer, whose work only recently was surpassed in sales worldwide by the bestsellers penned by Paulo Coelho;
  • José de Alencar, a very important writer from the XIX Century, whose work is a stepping stone for most of the Modern Brazilian Literature;
  • Luíza Erundina, of humble background, she became the first female mayor of São Paulo;
  • Rachel de Queiroz, writer; the first woman to become part of the Academia Brasileira de Letras;
  • Ferreira Gullar, Brazilian poet, one of the founders of Neoconcretismo;
  • Assis Chateaubriand, media conglomerate owner, one of the most influential personalities in Brazil in the XX century, he founded the first television network of Latin America and the fifth in the world (Tupi TV); he is also known for having founded MASP (São Paulo Museum of Art);
  • João Cabral de Melo Neto, a remarkable Brazilian Writer and Poet, whose body of work is a solid reference to the hardships of the local people endures;
  • Gilberto Freyre, Brazilian Sociologist, author of a definitive work about the structure of Brazil's Social Relations, the "Casa Grande & Senzala", an obligatory source of the origins of the intrincated Social & Ethnics in the Country;
  • Paulo Ribenboim, Brazilian Mathematician;
  • Celso Furtado, notable Economist, who while in exile was guest teacher in the University of Sorbonne, in Paris, France;
  • Nísia Floresta, pioneer of feminism in Brasil;
  • Pontes de Miranda, jurist;
  • Anísio Teixeira, a remarkable Educator, pioneer of many strategies for Education to reach all levels of Society, not only those able to pay to attend elite schools;
  • Pirajá da Silva, responsible for the identification of the cycle of the Schistosomiasis;
  • Teixeira de Freitas, jurist, author of a Brazilian Civil Code sketch which would influence other neighbouring South American countries.
  • Gregório de Matos, a notable Poet;
  • Gonçalves Dias, poet;
  • Ariano Suassuna, a remarkable playwrighter, which work has been focus of a recent revival, via TV and Cinema adaptations;
  • Luiz Gonzaga, a very influential, seminal musician, author of many successes, including "Asa Branca", with Humberto Teixeira;
  • Gilberto Gil, musician
  • Alceu Valença, musician
  • Raul Seixas, musician
  • Caetano Veloso, musician
  • Dorival Caymmi, musician
  • Sílvio Romero, folklorist
  • Graciliano Ramos, important Brazilian writer
  • Castro Alves, Brazilian poet
  • Geraldo Vandré, one of the most notable Musicians during the mid-60's, author of many songs against the then dictatorship imposed in the country. Among the many are: "Disparada"; "Aroeira" and his most famous composition, "Pra Não Dizer que Não Falei das Flores (also known as "Caminhando" - or "Walking")", which lead to his arrest, torture and forced exile from the Country;
  • Hermeto Pascoal, notable worldwide famous and influential Musician, creator of a revolutionary style and approach to Music, born in Arapiraca, Alagoas;
  • Graça Aranha, writer
  • Aluísio de Azevedo, writer, precursor of the modern, urban Literature;
  • Martha Vasconcellos, Miss Universe in 1968
  • Martha Rocha, famous Miss Brazil
  • Adriana Lima, famous international model
  • Norberto Odebrecht, entrepreneur from the Building Industry;
  • Padre Cícero, the most historically important and revered Spiritual Leader of the whole Region to this very day, believed to be a Miracle Man, a Saint and who is still unanimously and widely worshipped in the Northeast, beyond any boundaries, Religious or otherwise. No other name can unite the whole Region as this "Santo Homem";
  • Lampião, most famous leader of a Cangaço band, marauders and outlaws who defied the authorities of Brazilian Northeast in the 1920s and 1930s. He was considered a Fair figure by the people, and a feared, charismatic Public Leader by the legal authorities;
  • Casimiro Montenegro Filho, founder of the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA);
  • Zumbi, a Freedom Fighter, leader of Brazil's most important Quilombo, the "Quilombo of Palmares";
  • Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco, former Brazilian president
  • Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, leader of the Proclamation of the Brazilian Republic;
  • Epitácio Pessoa, former Brazilian president
  • Floriano Peixoto, former Brazilian president
  • Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, former Brazilian president
  • José Sarney, former president

Central-West Region, Brazil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Central-West Region
Região Centro-Oeste
—  Region  —
Location of Central-West Region in Brazil
Country Brazil
StatesBFDGOMT and MS
 • Region1,612,077.2 km2(622,426.5 sq mi)
Area rank2nd
Population (2005 census)
 • Region13,040,246
 • Estimate (2006)13,269,517
 • Rank5
 • Density8.1/km2 (21/sq mi)
 • Density rank4th
 • Urban86.3%
 • Year2006 estimate
 • TotalR$206,361,000,000 (4th)
 • Per capitaR$14,604 (2nd)
 • Year2005–2006
 • Category0.818 – high (3nd)
 • Life expectancy73.2 years (3rd)
 • Infant mortality19.5% (3rd)
 • Literacy91.7% (3rd)
Time zoneBRT (UTC-04)
 • Summer (DST)BRST (UTC-03)
The Central-West Region of Brazil (PortugueseRegião Centro-Oeste do Brasil) is composed of the states of GoiásMato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; along withDistrito Federal (Federal District), where Brazil's national capital, Brasília, is situated. This Region is right in the heart of Brazil, representing 18.86% of the national territory.
With the move of the country's federal capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília in the 60s, the construction of roads and railways to the interior of the country made the accesses easier, speeding up the population settling and contributing significantly to its development.
Mato Grosso do Sul was created in 1979, materializing the decision of the government to divide the then called state of Mato Grosso in two states to facilitate to the administration and the development of the region.
Today, Center-West is attracting many investments for agriculture, pecuary, industries and people from Southeast and Southern Brazil.
Brasília International AirportMarechal Rondon International AirportCampo Grande International Airport and Santa Genoveva Airport connects Center-West region with many Brazilian cities and also operates some international flights.


National Park Chapada dos Guimarães inMato Grosso.

Forest in Goiás.
A state with a flat landscape, alternating great chapadas and plain areas, Mato Grosso presents three different ecosystems:CerradoPantanal and the Amazon Rainforest. The vegetation of the open pasture covers 40% of the state and the National Park Chapada dos Guimarães, with its cavesgrottostracks andwaterfalls. In the north is the Amazonian Rainforest, with a huge biodiversity covering half of the state and the Xingu National Park and the river Araguaia. Further south, the Pantanal, the world largest plain covered with water, is the habitat for almost a thousand species of animals, with many aquatic birds.
The Pantanal covers 12 municipalities and presents an enormous variety of flora and fauna, with forests, natural sand banks, savannahs, open pasture, fields and bushes. The city Bonito, in the mountain of Bodoquena, has prehistoric caverns, natural rivers, waterfalls, swimming pools and the Blue Lake cavern. Mato Grosso do Sul hashumid subtropical and tropical climate.
The annual rainfall is 1.500 mm. January is the warmest month, with mean maxima of 34°C (93.2°F) and minima of 24°C (75.2°F) and more rain; July experiences the coldest temperatures, with mean maxima of 25°C (77°F) and minima of 15°C (59°F) and sun. The "cerrado" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation.
The most central of the Brazilian States and most populous of the region, Goiás presents a landscape of plateaus and chapadões. In the height of the draught, from June to September, the lack of rain makes the level of the River Araguaia go down and brigs up almost 2 km of beaches.
At the Emas National Park in the municipality of Chapadão do Céu, it is possible to observe the typical fauna and the flora from the region. At the Chapada dos Veadeiros the attractions are the canyons, valleys, rapids and waterfalls. Other attractions are the historical city of Goiás (or Old Goiás), at 132 km from Goiânia, established in the beginning of 18th century, and Caldas Novas, known for its hot springs.
Located in the State of Goiás, in a region called Planalto Central, the Brazilian Federal District is divided in 30 administrative regions.Brasília - place where the three branches of the Federal Government are located - is the main attraction of this dry area and climate with only two seasons. The raining season from October to March.
During the dry season, the humidity can reach critical levels, mainly in the pick hours of the hottest days. The artificial lake of Paranoá, with almost 40 km² and 500 million m³ of water, was built exactly to minimize the severe climatic conditions of the winter. The region also attracts místicos and in its surroundings you find many temples of different religions and sectarian groups.


The Central-West Region has 467 cities. The most porpulated are the following:


The economy in the Central-West Region is essentially based on cattle breeding, which took the place of gold and precious stone prospecting, which were local activities in the past. Brazil's largest manganese reserve is found in the Central-West Region in Urucum Woods and 'political business' and tourism are also very important to the region.


Portuguese language is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum

[edit]Educational institutions

[edit]Tourism and recreation

Waterfall in Chapada do Guimarães,Mato Grosso.
Tourism has grown at impressive speed in the last decades there, attracting visitors from several parts of Brazil and the world; who all enjoy the Region's flora and fauna riches, as well as its innumerous marvelous views.
Located in the middle of vast Central Upland, the Central-West Region reveals how attractive the tours in the interior of the country can be. Starting in the west part of Mato Grosso do Sul State and the southeast part of Mato Grosso State, we have Pantanal Mato-grossense; the largest swampy plain area in the world, cut by Paraguai River. Its fauna and flora riches draw the attention of the world. In the same state, it's possible to take tours through pleasant places, such as Alta Floresta, where ecotourism is the greatest attraction; Bonito, one of the places with the most crystalline waters in the country; and Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, full of mountains and beautiful landscapes offered by the meadow vegetation.
Dividing the States of Mato GrossoMato Grosso do Sul and Goiás, Araguaia River attracts innumerous fishermen from all parts of Brazil and the world. And in the State of Goiás, historical attractions, such as Pirenópolis draw many visitors all year long, with its steep stone-paved streets and its colonial houses. Other attractions in the same state include Chapada dos Veadeiros and the National Park of Emas, where the contact with the nature is the essence of the tours. In the Federal District, the National Park of Brasília is one of the greatest local .

Southeast Region, Brazil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Southeast Region
Região Sudeste
—  Region  —
Location of Southeast Region in Brazil
Country Brazil
StatesESMGRJ and SP
 • Region924,511.3 km2(356,955.8 sq mi)
Area rank4th
Population (2005 census)
 • Region78,000,000
 • Estimate (2006)79,000,000
 • Rank1st
 • Density84/km2 (220/sq mi)
 • Density rank1st
 • Urban92%
 • Year2008/2008 estimate
 • TotalR$1.698.590.000.000,00 (1st)
 • Per capitaR$21.182,68 (1st)
 • Year2000–2006
 • Category0.824 – high (2nd)
 • Life expectancy73.5 years (2nd)
 • Infant mortality18.3% (4th)
 • Literacy94% (2nd)
Time zoneBRT (UTC-03)
 • Summer (DST)BRST (UTC-02)
The Southeast Region of Brazil (PortugueseRegião Sudeste do Brasil) is composed by the states of Espírito SantoMinas GeraisRio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It is the richest region of the country, responsible for approximately 60% of the Brazilian GDP.São PauloRio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais are three richest states of Brazil, the top three Brazilian states in terms of GDP. The Southeast of Brazil also has the highestGDP per capita among all Brazilian regions.
The Southeast region leads the country in population, urban population, population density, vehicles, industries, universities, airports, ports, highways, hospitals, schools, houses and many other areas.
São Paulo-Guarulhos International AirportGaleão - Antônio Carlos Jobim International AirportConfins International Airport and Vitoria Airport connects Southeast region with many Brazilian cities and also operates some international flights.


Ipê in Campinas.
Heart of the largest continued remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, the Ribeira Valley is a Natural Heritage of Humanity, granted heritage as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. One of the biggest attractions is the biologic and ecosystems diversity, where approximately 400 species of birds, amphibians, reptiles and mammals live. The Alto Ribeira State and Tourist Park (PETAR) is paradise for ecotourists, for its enormous diversity in geologic formations, among grottos and cavesrivers and waterfalls. There are currently 454 caves registered by the Brazilian Society of Speleology (SBE) in the State of São Paulo, all at the Ribeira Valley. The 280 caves located at PETAR represent the biggest concentration of caves in Brazil.

National Park of Serra da Canastra.

Station Square in Belo Horizonte.
The landscape of the State is marked by mountainsvalleys and caverns. In the Serra do Cipó, Sete Lagoas, Cordisburgo and Lagoa Santa, the caves and waterfalls. Minas Gerais is the source of some of the biggest rivers in Brazil, most notably the São Francisco, theParaná and to a lesser extent, the Rio Doce. The state also holds many hydroelectric power plants, including Furnas. Some of the highest peaks in Brazil are in the mountain ranges in the southern part of the state, such as Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Cervo, that mark the border between Minas and its neighbors São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The most notable one is the Pico da Bandeira, the third highest mountain in Brazil at 2890 m, standing on the border with Espírito Santo state. The state also has huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emeraldtopaz and aquamarine mines.
The state is part of the Mata Atlântica biome, and its topography comprises both mountainsand plains, located between the Mantiqueira Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. Its coast is carved by the bays of Guanabara, Sepetiba and Ilha Grande. There are prominent slopesnear the ocean, featuring also diverse environments, such as restinga vegetationbays,lagoons and tropical forests. Rio de Janeiro is the smallest state in the Southeastmacroregion and one of the smallest in Brazil. It has, however, the third longest coastline in the country (second only to Bahia's and Maranhão's), extending 635 kilometers.

Espirito Santos's beaches in Guarapari.
With 46.180 square kilometers, it is about the size of Estonia, or half the size of Portugal, and has a variety of habitats including coastal planes, lakes, mountain forest, mangroves and many others. The main river in the state is the Doce. Other important river basins include the Santa Maria River Basin which is the northern branch of rivers which join the sea at Vitoria, and Jucu River Basin which flows into the sea at roughly the same place, but corresponds to the southern branch (which seems to come out of Vitoria). Espírito Santo's climate is tropicalalong the coast, with dry winters and rainy summers. North of Doce River it's generally drier and also hot. In the mountainous regions in the south and south west of the state, the tropical climate is strongly influenced by altitude, and the average temperatures are colder. The state can be divided into two areas: the low lying coastline and the highland area known as Serra (where one can find the 2.890 m Pico da Bandeira mountain), which is part of the larger Serra do Caparaó, the Caparaó Highlands. In the map to the right it is in the gray area in the extreme southwest of the state, and is shared with Minas Gerais.


[edit]Largest cities

CityPopulation (IBGE/2010)[1]
São Paulo (state) São Paulo11,253,503
Rio de Janeiro (state) Rio de Janeiro6,320,446
Minas Gerais Belo Horizonte2,375,151
São Paulo (state) Guarulhos1,221,979
São Paulo (state) Campinas1,080,113
Rio de Janeiro (state) São Gonçalo999,728
Rio de Janeiro (state) Duque de Caxias855,048
Rio de Janeiro (state) Nova Iguaçu796,257
São Paulo (state) São Bernardo do Campo765,463
São Paulo (state) Santo André676,407

[edit]Racial groups

Skin color/Race (IBGE/2010)[2] %
Multiracial (Brown)35.69%
Not declared0.01%


São Paulo state is responsible for approximately one-third of Brazilian GDP. The state'sGDP (PPP) consists of 550 billion dollars, making it also the biggest economy of South America and one of the biggest economies in Latin America, second after Mexico. Its economy is based on machinery, the automobile and aviation industries, services, financial companies, commerce, textiles, orange growing, sugar cane and coffee production. Minas Gerais is a growing state.


Vehicles: 36,030,943 (Jan/2012);[3] Telephones: 23,878,000 (April/2007); Cities: 1,668 (2007).


Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. English and Spanish are also part of the official high school curriculum. French is also widely studied.

[edit]Educational institutions


[edit]International Airports

São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport connects Brazil to 28 countries and is visited every day by nearly 100 thousand people. With capacity to serve 15 million passengers a year, in two terminals, the airport currently handles 12 million users. Construction of a third passenger terminal is pending, to raise yearly capacity to 29 million passengers. The project, in the tendering phase, is part of the airport's master plan and will get under way shortly. São Paulo International Airport is also one of the main air cargo hubs in Brazil. The roughly 100 flights a day carry everything from fruits grown in the São Francisco Valley to the most sophisticated medications created by science. The airport's cargo terminal is South America's largest and stands behind only Mexico City's in all of Latin America. In 2003, over 75 thousand metric tons of freight passed through the terminal.
Since August 2004, with the transfer of many flights from Santos-Dumont Airport, Rio de Janeiro International Airport has returned to being the main doorway to Brazil. According to data from the official Brazilian travel bureau, Embratur, nearly 40% of foreign tourists who visit Brazil choose Rio as their gateway, meaning Galeão Airport. Besides linking Rio to the rest of Brazil with domestic flights, Galeão has connections to more than 18 countries. It can handle up to 15 million users a year in two passenger terminals. Located only 20 kilometers from downtown Rio, the international airport is served by several quick access routes, such as the Linha Vermelha and Linha Amarela freeways and Avenida Brasil, thus conveniently serving residents of the city's southern, northern and western zones. There are special shuttle buses linking Galeão to Santos-Dumont, and bus and taxi service to the rest of the city. The airport complex also has Brazil's longest runway at 4.240 meters, and one of South America's largest and best equipped cargo logistics terminals.

The Confins International Airport in the main hub in Minas Gerais.
Tancredo Neves/Confins International Airport is located in the municipalities of Lagoa Santa and Confins, 38 km from Belo Horizonte, and was opened in January 1984. It was planned from the start for future expansion in steps to meet growing demand. The first step was undertaken with careful concern for the environment, including monitoring by specialized consultants, since the region has a rich archeological heritage. The airport's location is attested to by the fact it has one of the lowest rates of shutdown for bad weather in the country. Confins is certified by the ISO 9001 standard, covering ten processes in the administrative, operational, safety/security and maintenance areas. Starting in March 2005, Confins Airport will receive flights that currently use Pampulha Airport.

[edit]National Airport

Vitoria Airport is located on a land plot of just over 5.2 million square meters. Since construction of its first step, finished in 1946, Vitória Airport has undergone several expansions and modernizations, but current demand has surpassed its capacity of 560 thousand passengers a year. The recent construction of new aircraft parking boxes on the aprons has improved the airport's operational efficiency. In 2003 more than 1.2 million passengers used the airport, and in 2004 this rose to some 1.25 million. Vitória is one of the 32 airports in the Infraero network that has a cargo terminal. In May 1999 the first direct international freight connection to the United States (Miami) began operating to Vitória, facilitating imports to the state of Espírito Santo. Today there are five such flights a week


Dom Pedro Highway, part of CampinasBeltway. Photo by Renato M.E. Sabbatini.
The Southeast Brazilian region is highly covered by Paved roads – due to the policy in the Brazil's economy in the 1960s (automobilization of the country) – which led to the car's manufacturing to be a major industry not only in the region but in Brazil as well.
The Southeast's highways are generally in good or very good conditions – some exceptions are made to the southern parts of the BR-101.
Railways are present as well (and also, the region is more covered than any other region), but mainly for freight transport – soil and iron, mainly, from the farms and mines to the seaports.
Also, a very complicated hydrocanal system is present in the region, with ten major dams.

[edit]Social Care

The Pampulha Church in Belo Horizonte is one of the most expressive symbols of the Brazilian Modern Architecture.

São Paulo is the largest Brazilian city.
Health care and education are of major concern in the larger cities, but in smaller ones, the population are generally well-looked after.
Larger cities suffer from an increase in violence rates – mainly São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, which suffer the effects of Drug Mafia nowadays. Unemployment rates can be as high of 22% when informal working is not considered, or as high as 11% even with informal work. This leads to misery, worsens crime rates and other social problems like begging and child labour, for example.

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